高中英语语法:介词

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     介词是一种虚词,表示词与词之间关系的词类。在句中不能单独作句子成分。需与动词、形容词、名词和代词等搭配,才能在句子中充当成分。介词后面一般有名词代词或相当于名词的其他词类,短语或从句作它的宾语。

一、介词分类

1. 简单介词:about, after, against, at, during, etc
2. 合成介词:inside, into, onto, out of, without, etc
3. 短语介词:according to, up to, due to, owing to, thanks to, etc
4. 双重介词:from among, from behind, from under, till after, in between, etc
5. 分词形式的介词:considering,given,including,concerning, etc

二、介词的句法功能

1. 作表语:He is in good health. 她身体很健康。
2. 作状语:Don’t touch it with your hands. 别用手去摸它。
3. 作定语:This is the best way of doing it. 这是做此事最好的方法。
4. 宾语补足语:I found everything in good condition. 我发现一切正常。
5. 作宾语:I saw her from across the street. 我从街对面看见了她。
6. 作主语:Between 6 and 7 suits me. 六点到七点对我比较适合。

三、介词短语

1. 介词与动词搭配
arrive in/at到达
ask for要,请求
do well in在……方面做得好
give in投降
go on继续
hear from收到……来信
leave for离开一地去另一地
send for派人去请
look for寻找
deal/do with处置,对待
belong to属于
write to写信给……
2. 介词与名词搭配
in time及时
on time准时,按时
in front of在……前面
with a smile带着微笑
at the beginning of在……开始
at the end of在……结尾
in a word总而言之,一句话
in order to为了,以便
on one hand …on the other hand一方面……另一方面
on the radio通过无线电广播 
to one’s surprise/joy使某人吃惊/高兴
3. 介词与形容词、过去分词等搭配
be good at擅长……
be angry with sb. 对某人生气
be angry at sth. 为某事生气
be satisfied with sth.对某事感到满意
be tired of讨厌……/厌倦……
take part in参加
take care of照顾,关心,保管
be busy with忙于……
be strict with对……严格要求 
have nothing to do with与……无关