高中英语语法:动名词

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     动名词形式与现在分词相同,即由动词原形加ing构成,其否定形式由“not + 动名词”构成。

一、动名词的用法

     动名词,顾名思义,既有动词也有名词的某些特征。可带有自己的宾语和状语,构成动名词短语。在句中可作主语、宾语、表语和定语。
1. 作主语.例如:
    Seeing is believing.
    Laying eggs is the ant queen’s full- time job.
    It is no use arguing with him.
    注意:动名词和不定式都可以作主语,动名词作主语表示一般或抽象的多次性行为,不定式作主语往往表示具体的或一次性的动作.例如:
    Playing with fire is dangerous.(泛指玩火)
    To play with fire will be dangerous.(指一具体动作)
2. 作表语.例如:
    Her job is teaching.
3. 作宾语.例如:
    He is fond of playing football.
    I like swimming.
    注① admit,appreciate,avoid,consider,delay,dislike,enjoy,escape,excuse,face,feel,like,finish,forgive,give up,imagine,include,keep,mention,mind,miss,practise,put off,resist, risk,suggest,can’t help,can’t stand(无法忍受)等动词后可以用动名词作宾语,但不能用不定式.
    注② forget,go on,like,mean,regret,remember,stop,try等动词可带动名词或不定式作宾语,但意义上有区别。
    I remember doing the exercise. (我记得做过练习。)
    I must remember to do it.  (我必须记着做这事。)
    I tried not to go there.  (我没法不去那里。)
    I tried doing it again.  (我试着又干了一次。)
    Stop speaking. (不要讲话。)
    He stopped to talk. (他停下来讲话。)
    I mean to come early today. (我打算今早些来。) 
    Missing the train means waiting for another hour.(误了这趟火车意味着再等一个小时。)
    注③在 allow,advise,forbid,permit等动词后直接跟动词作宾语时,要用动名词形式,如果后面有名词或代词作宾语,然后再跟动词作宾语补足语时,其宾语补足语用带to的不定式.例如:
    We don' t allow smoking here.
    We don' t allow students to smoke.
    注④动词 need,require,want作“需要”解,其后跟动词作它的宾语时,必须用动名词,或不定式的被动式。这时动名词的主动式表示被动意义。例如:
    The window needs( requires,wants) cleaning( to be cleaned)
    注⑤在短语 devote to,look forward to,stick to,to be used to,object to,thank you for,have difficulty/trouble/problem (in) 等后的动词也必须用动名词形式。例如:
    I look forward to hearing from you soon.
    注⑥在 love,hate,prefer等动词后用动名词或不定式无多大区别。
    但说话人有所指的时候,通常用不定式。
    注⑦start,begin,continue在书面语中多后接动名词,在口语中多后接不定式。
    注⑧在 should(would) like/love等后须用不定式。
4. 作定语.例如:
    He has a reading room.