初二英语(下册)重点词语辨析

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1. above/ over/ on
这三个介词都表示“在……之上”,但含义不同。on指在某物的表面上,和某物接触;above指在某物的上方,不和某物接触,但也不一定在某物的正上方;over指在某物的正上方,不和某物接触。试比较:
There is a book on the desk.课桌上有一本书。
I raise my right hand above my head. 我把右手高举过头。
There is a stone bridge over the river. 河面上有座石桥。

2. forget to do sth./forget doing sth.
forget to do sth.意思是“忘记做某事”,实际上还没做;forget doing sth,意思是“忘记做过某事”,实际上已经做过了。试比较:
I forgot to tell him the news.我忘记告诉他这条消息了。
I forgot telling him the news.我已经把这条消息告诉他了,我却忘了。
类似的词还有:remember, regret等。

3. hope/wish
hope和wish 在汉语中都有“希望”的意思,但其含义和用法有所不同。主要区别如下:
(1)wish可以用来表示不可实现的愿望;hope只能用来表示可能实现的愿望。例如:
I wish I were 20 years younger.我但愿自己能年轻二十岁。
I hope you’ll be better soon. 我希望你能很快好起来。
I wish the weather wasn’t so cold. 但愿天气不这麽冷。
I hope he will come, too. 我希望他也能来。
(2)wish可以接sb. to do sth. 的结构,而hope不可以。例如:
Do you wish me to come back later?  你是否希望我再来?

4. be sure to do sth./ be sure of/about sb. or sth.
(1)be sure to do sth.可以用来表示说话人给对方提出要求,意思是“务必”,也可以用来表示说话人做出的推断,意思是“一定”,“肯定”。例如:
Be sure to lock the door when you leave.你离开时务必把门锁好。
It’s a good film. You are sure to enjoy it.这是一部好电影,你肯定会喜欢的。
(2)be sure of/about sb.or sth.  可用来表示“某人对某事有把握”。例如:
I’m sure of his success.我相信他会成功。
I think it was three years ago, but I’m not sure about it.我想那是三年前的事情,但我没有把握。

5. hear from/hear of
hear意思是“听到”,从哪里听到要用from来表示。例如:
I’ve heard from Xiao Wu that we’ll start out military training tomorrow.
我听小吴说,我们明天开始军训。
Listen to the tape and write out what you hear from Han Mei.
听录音,并写出你从韩梅那里听到的内容。
hear from还有一个意思是“收到某人的来信”(=receive a letter from sb.)。例如:
I heard from my pen friend in the U.S.A. last month.
上个月我受到了美国笔友的来信。
I heard from her last week. 我上周接到了她的来信。
hear of和和hear from含义不同。hear of 意思是“听说”,“得知”(某事或某人的存在),常用在疑问句和否定句里。例如:
Who is he? I’ve never heard of him.他是谁?我从来没有听说过他。
I never heard of such a thing! 这样的事我从来没有听说过。

6. It’s a pleasure. / With pleasure.
It’s a pleasure这句话常用作别人向你表示致谢时的答语,意思是“那是我乐意做的”。例如:
---Thank you for helping me. 谢谢你地帮助。
---It’s a pleasure. 那是我乐意做的。
---Thanks a lot. Bye. 非常感谢。 再见。
---It’s a pleasure. 那是我乐意做的。再见。
类似的话还有 “Not at all.” “You are welcome.” “That’s all right.”
    With pleasure也用作客气的答语,主要用在别人要你做某事,而你又非常愿意去做的场合。例如:
---Will you please pass me the newspaper, please? 请你把报纸递给我好吗?
---With pleasure. 当然可以。

7. seem/look
(1)二者都可以作“看起来”讲,但seem暗示凭借一些迹象作出的有根据的判断,这种判断往往接近事实;look着重强调由视觉得出的印象。两者都可跟(to be)+形容词和as if从句。如:
He seems / looks (to be) very happy today. 他今天看起来很高兴。
It looks (seems) as if it it is going to rain. 好像要下雨了。
(2)但下列情况中只用seem不用look:
1)后跟不定式to do时。如:
He seems to know the answer. 他似乎知道答案。
2)在It seems that ...结构中。如:
It seems that he is happier now than yesterday.他像比昨天高兴些了。