初二英语(上册)重点词语辨析

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1. would like / like
would like 和 like含义不同。like 意思是“喜欢”,“爱好”,而 would like 意思是“想要”。试比较:
  I like beer.=I’m fond of beer. 我喜欢喝啤酒。
  I’d like a glass of beer= I want a glass of beer. 我想要一杯啤酒。
  Do you like going to the cinema? 你喜欢看电影吗?
  Would you like to go to the cinema tonight? 你今晚想去看电影吗?

2. another / the other
(1)another 通常用于三个或三个以上或不确定数量中的任意一个人或 物体。例如:
May I have another apple, please? 请在给我一个苹果好吗?
This coat is too small for me. Please show me another. 这件外套我穿太小,请再给我拿一件看看。
(2)the other 通常指两者中的另一个。例如:
He has two rulers. One is short. The other is long. 他有两把尺子,一把短的,另一把长的。
I have two brothers. One works in Xi’an. The other works in Beijing. 我有两个兄弟,一个在西安工作,另一个在北京工作。

3. have to /must
(1)have to和 must 都可以用来谈论义务,但用法略有不同。如果某人主观上觉得必须去做而又想去时,常用must。如果谈论某种来自“外界”的义务,常用have to。例如:
I must stop smoking. 我必须戒烟。(自己想戒烟)
They have to work for the boss. 他们不得不为那个老板工作。(条件逼得他们去工作)
(2)have to 可用于多种时态,must 只能用于一般现在时。例如:
I’ll have to get up early tomorrow morning. 明天早晨我必须早早起床。
We had to work long hours every day in order to get more money. 为了多挣钱,我们不得不每天长时间地工作。
(3)用于否定句时,mustn’t意思是“决不能”,“禁止”,而don’t have to意思是“不必”,相当于needn’t。例如:
  You mustn’t be late again next time.下一次你决不能再迟到。
  You don’t have to go there today. You can go there tomorrow. 你今天不必到那里去了。你可以明天去。

4. hear sb. or sth.doing sth. / herar sb. or sth. do sth.
hear sb. or sth.doing sth.意思是“听到某人或某物在做某事”,而hear sb. or sth. do sth.意思是“听到某人或某物做过某事”。试比较:
I hear him singing an English song. 听见他在唱英歌曲。
I heard him sing an English song. 我听见他唱一首英文歌。
类似hear 这种用法的还有see, watch, listen, feel等感官动词。

5. any /some
any和some 都可以同不可数名词和可数名词的复数形式连用,但some一般用在肯定句中;any用在疑问句和否定句中。试比较:
I want some money. 我想要点钱。
Have you any money? 你有钱吗?
I don’t have any money. 我一点钱也没有。
some 有时也用于疑问句,表示说话人期待一个肯定回答或鼓励人家说“是”。例如:
Would you like some more beer? 请你再来点啤酒好吗?
Could I have some rice, please? 请给我来点米饭好吗?